# Advanced Sphere-Sphere Continuous Collision Detection (CCD)

By , last updated July 21, 2019

In simple collision detection algorithm we have calculated whether the two spheres were colliding. More advanced calculations include finding the time of the collision as well as the direction of the spheres during the test.

Let us assume we have a vector between sphere centers (s), relative speed (v) and sum of radii (radiusSum): $vec{s} = s1.pos - s2.pos$ $vec{v} = s1.vel - s2.vel$ $radiusSum = s1.radius + s2.radius$

We can calculate squared distance between centers. If the distance (dist) is negative, they already overlap: $dist = vec{s}.dot(vec{s})$

Spheres intersect if squared distance between centers is less than squared sum of radii:

If b is 0.0 or positive, they are not moving towards each other: $b = vec{v}.dot(vec{s})$ $a = vec{v}.dot(vec{v})$

If d is negative, no real roots, and therefore no collisions: $d = b*b - a*dist$

If we’ve come so far, we can calculate time of the collision: $t = ( -b - sqrt{d}) / a$

Read also: Sphere vs AABB collision detection test

### Code

```	bool testMovingSphereSphere(Scenenode *A, Scenenode *B, double &t)
{
Planet *pa = (Planet *) A;
Planet *pb = (Planet *) B;

Vector3D<double> s = pa->pos - pb->pos; // vector between the centers of each sphere
Vector3D<double> v = pa->vel - pb->vel; // relative velocity between spheres

double c = s.dot(s) - r*r; // if negative, they overlap
if (c < 0.0) // if true, they already overlap
{
t = .0;
return true;
}

float a = v.dot(v);

float b = v.dot(s);
if (b >= 0.0)
return false; // does not move towards each other

float d = b*b - a*c;
if (d < 0.0)
return false; // no real roots ... no collision

t = (-b - sqrt(d)) / a;

return true;

}
``` Professional Software Developer, doing mostly C++. Connect with Kent on Twitter.

Hello,
it seems that this line:
“If b is 0.0 or positive, they are not moving towards each other:”
and the code:

float b = v.dot(s);
if (b >= 0.0)
return false; // does not move towards each other

Are false. If the dot product is positive, the angle between the two vector is <90 degree, meaning that the relative velocity is going somewhat in the same direction as the relative position. Therefore they are moving towards each other.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: `<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong> `

*